Article PDF


magnesium, dementia, depression, migraine, neuroprotection

Abstract views: 277
PDF Downloads: 161

How to Cite



Relevance. Anti-depressant effects of NMDA receptor antagonists have been proven, a close association between low levels of magnesium in the blood and depression. Therefore, in recent years, antidepressant properties of magnesium are actively studied in animal experiments.

Objective: To review modern literary sources about the role of magnesium deficiency in the pathogenesis of diseases of the central nervous system.

Materials and methods. Searching for a depth of 12 years at Scopus, Google Scholar.

Results. The results of experimental and clinical researches pointed out on association between low level of magnesium in hair, liquor, brain with higher risk of development dementia, depression and anxiety. An additional supplementation with magnesium in patients associates with decreasing risk of ischemic stroke and dementia, in pregnancy – provides neuroprotection of fetus, in case of depression increases effectiveness of antidepressants, in brain injury associates with faster recovery of cognitive functions, in migraines - with decreasing in the frequency of attacks and improvement of the quality patients’ lives, in case of neuroleptic therapy - with the possibility of delayed appearance or absence of manifestations of drug parkinsonism. These changes are explained by antagonistic effects of magnesium on glutamate receptors, decreasing oxidative stress intensity as well as neural cell  apoptosis.

Conclusion. Magnesium plays an important neuroprotective role.
Article PDF


Abumaria N. et al. Effects of elevation of brain magnesium on fear conditioning, fear extinction, and synaptic plasticity in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex and lateral amygdala // J Neurosci. 2011. Vol. 31. No. 42. P. 14871-14881. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Adebamowo S.N. et al. Association between intakes of magnesium, potassium, and calcium and risk of stroke: 2 cohorts of US women and updated meta-analyses // Am J Clin Nutr. 2015. Vol. 101. No. 6. P: 1269-1277. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Brenda C.T. et al. Serum magnesium is associated with the risk of dementia // Neurology. 2017. Vol. 89. No. 16. P. 1716-1722. (data 8.05.2018).

Chaigne-Delalande B., Lenardo M.J. Divalent cation signaling in immune cells // Trends Immunol. 2014. Vol. 35. No. 7. P. 332-344. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Chubanov V. et al. Epithelial magnesium transport by TRPM6 is essential for prenatal development and adult survival // Elife. 2016. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

de Oliveira A.R.S. et al. Hypomagnesemia and its relation with chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity // Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. 2017. Vol. 63. No. 2. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

De Silva D.A. et al. MAGnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection to prevent Cerebral Palsy (MAG-CP)-implementation of a national guideline in Canada // Implement Sci. 2018. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Djokic G. et al. Interictal Ionized Magnesium/ Total Serum Magnesium Ratio in Serbian Population with Drug Resistant Epilepsy Whether is Severe Epilepsy in Fact Brain Injury? // Neuropsychiatry (London). 2017. Vol. 7. No. 5. P. 629-636. URL: (data 8.05.2018)

Hoffmann J., Charles A. Glutamate and Its Receptors as Therapeutic Targets for Migraine // Neurotherapeutics. 2018. Vol. 15. No. 2. P. 361-370. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Houston M. The role of magnesium in hypertension and cardiovascular disease // J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2011. Vol. 13. No. 11. P. 843-847 URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Islam M.R. et al. Alterations of serum macro-minerals and trace elements are associated with major depressive disorder: a case-control study // BMC Psychiatry. 2018. Vol. 18. No. 1. P. 94. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Jafri A.J.A. et al. Protective effect of magnesium acetyltaurate against NMDA-induced retinal damage involves restoration of minerals and trace elements homeostasis // J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2017. Vol. 39. P. 147-154. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Kovacevic G. et al. A 6-month follow-up of disability, quality of life, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in pediatric migraine with magnesium prophylaxis // Magnes Res. 2017. Vol.30. No. 4. P. 133-141. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Kronbauer M. et al. Influence of magnesium supplementation on movement side effects related to typical antipsychotic treatment in rats // Behav Brain Res. 2017. Vol. 320. P. 400-411. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Lambuk L. et al. Neuroprotective Effect of Magnesium Acetyltaurate Against NMDA-Induced Excitotoxicity in Rat Retina // Neurotox Res. 2017. Vol. 31. No. 1. P. 31-45. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Larsson S.C., Orsini N., Wolk A. Dietary magnesium intake and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective studies // Am J Clin Nutr. 2012. Vol. 95. No. 2. P.362-366. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Li W. et al. Elevation of brain magnesium prevents and reverses cognitive deficits and synaptic loss in Alzheimer's disease mouse model // J Neurosci. 2013. Vol. 33. No. 19. P.8423-8441. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Magnesium in the Central Nervous System. Edited by R. Vink, M. Nechifor. 2011. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

McCabe D. et al. The impact of essential fatty acid, B vitamins, vitamin C, magnesium and zinc supplementation on stress levels in women: a systematic review // JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep. 2017. Vol. 15. No. 2. P. 402-453. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Martínez-Cengotitabengoa M., González-Pinto A. Nutritional supplements in depressive disorders // Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2017. Vol. 45 (Supplement): 8-15. URL: (дата звернення 8.05.2018).

Młyniec K. et al. The Role of Elements in Anxiety // Vitam Horm. 2017. Vol. 103. P. 295-326. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Muñoz-Castañeda J.R. et al. Magnesium Replacement to Protect Cardiovascular and Kidney Damage? Lack of Prospective Clinical Trials // Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018. Vol. 19. No. 3. P. 664. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Murrough J.W. et al. Antidepressant efficacy of ketamine in treatment-resistant major depression: a two-site randomized controlled trial // Am J Psychiatry. 2013. Vol. 170. No. 10. P. 1134-1142. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Nie Z.L. et al. Magnesium intake and incidence of stroke: meta-analysis of cohort studies // Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013. Vol. 23. No. 3. P.169–176. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Nielsen F.H. Magnesium deficiency and increased inflammation: current perspectives // J Inflamm Res. 2018. No. 11. P. 25-34. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Nishizawa Y., Morii H., Durlach J. New Perspectives in Magnesium Research. 2007. Springer, London. 411 p. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Pochwat B. et al. Antidepressant-like activity of magnesium in the chronic mild stress model in rats: alterations in the NMDA receptor subunits // Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014. Vol. 17. No. 3. P. 393-405. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Schlegel R.N. et al. Maternal hypomagnesemia alters hippocampal NMDAR subunit expression and programs anxiety-like behaviour in adult offspring // Behav Brain Res. 2017. Vol. 328. P. 39-47. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Schwalfenberg G.K., Genuis S.J. The Importance of Magnesium in Clinical Healthcare // Scientifica (Cairo). 2017. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Singh A. et al. Micronutrient Dietary Intake in Latina Pregnant Adolescents and Its Association with Level of Depression, Stress, and Social Support // Nutrients. 2017. Vol. 9. No. 11. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Slutsky I. et al. Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesium // Neuron. 2010. Vol. 65. No. 2. P. 165-177. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Sowa-Kućma M. et al. Zinc, magnesium and NMDA receptor alterations in the hippocampus of suicide victims // J Affect Disord. 2013. Vol. 151. No. 3. P. 924-931. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Torii S. Identification of PPM1D as an essential Ulk1 phosphatase for genotoxic stress-induced autophagy // EMBO Rep. 2016. Vol. 17, No. 11. P. 1552-1564. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Tzeng N.S. et al. Magnesium oxide use and reduced risk of dementia: a retrospective, nationwide cohort study in Taiwan // Curr Med Res Opin. 2018. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Veronese N. et al. Magnesium Status in Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review // Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2016. Vol. 31. No. 3. P. 208-213. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Villagomez A., Ramtekkar U. Iron, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Zinc Deficiencies in Children Presenting with Symptoms of

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder // Children. 2014. No. 1. P. 261-279. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

von Luckner A., Riederer F. Magnesium in Migraine Prophylaxis-Is There an Evidence-Based Rationale? A Systematic Review // Headache. 2018. Vol. 58. No. 2. P. 199-209. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Wang P., Wang Z.Y. Metal ions influx is a double edged sword for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease // Ageing Res Rev. 2017. Vol. 35. P. 265-290. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Young J.M., Hoane M.R. Magnesium Administration after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury Improves Decision-Making Skills // Brain Research Bulletin. 2018. Vol. 139. P.182-189. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Zarate C.A.Jr. et al. A randomized trial of an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist in treatment-resistant major depression // Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006. Vol. 63. No. 8. P. 856-864. URL: (data 8.05.2018).

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.