PECULIARITIES OF TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF INFECTION CAUSED BY HEPATITIS C VIRUS. Review
Article PDF (Українська)

Keywords

hepatitis C virus, diagnosis, treatment, specific prevention

Abstract views: 11
PDF Downloads: 8

How to Cite

Hrydina , T. (2022). PECULIARITIES OF TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF INFECTION CAUSED BY HEPATITIS C VIRUS. Review. Medical Science of Ukraine (MSU), 18(1), 64-72. https://doi.org/10.32345/2664-4738.1.2022.09

Abstract

Relevance. The goal of the WHO Global Strategy on Hepatitis Agents, in particular hepatitis C virus, is to identify infected people early for treatment and prevention of chronic infection. Early detection and treatment of this infection with direct antiviral drugs significantly reduces the incidence of liver cirrhosis and subsequent deaths. Development of an effective hepatitis C vaccine that can primarily protect at-risk individuals is ongoing.

Objective: to determine the main approaches for the treatment and prevention of hepatitis C, proposed by WHO, which can lead to the prevention of the formation of chronic forms of the disease and the development of hepatocarcinoma.

Methods. Analysis of publications from scientometric databases PubMed, Google Scolar, Cohrane Database by keywords. Search depth is 10 years (2011–2021).

Results. Analysis of literature sources about the peculiarities of the treatment of C viral hepatitis showed the feasibility of using drugs with direct antiviral action. Selection of such drugs in order the structural features of the pathogen and specificity of inhibition of the stages of viral reproduction process is discussed and justified. The specificity of the action of these drugs and the main targets of their application are considered. Today, WHO recommends the using of thirteen antiviral drugs with direct action. Two preparations are inhibitors of viral polymerase and the other eleven drugs inhibit of the viral proteases activity. Two direct-acting drugs with a different mechanism of activity are used in the therapeutic schemes. The genotype of the virus, the age and state of health of the patients, especially liver state, have to be considered during the treatment process. This treatment allows to get a positive result without using of interferon, which can cause some complication. Prospects with using new technologies for the creation of effective drugs for the specific prevention of hepatitis C, such as recombinant vaccines, nanovaccines, mRNA containing modified vaccines are considered. Such vaccines will allow to provide specific prophylaxis, especially among people from risk groups, including those with immunodeficiency states.

Conclusions. The application of the global strategy proposed by WHO such as early detection and treatment of acute hepatitis C for prevention of the development of chronic forms will lead to a decrease in the incidence of hepatitis in the world.

https://doi.org/10.32345/2664-4738.1.2022.09
Article PDF (Українська)

References

[Hepatitis C in Ukraine: epidemiological characteristics and assessment of burden (according to the results of data analysis from various sources)] / Ed. Sergeeva TA, Ivanchuk IO. 2018. 111 p. [in Ukrainian]

View at:

PubMed Central: https://www.phc.org.ua/sites/default/files/uploads/files/VGC-2018.pdf

Adu PA, Rossi C, Binka M, Wong S, Wilton J, Wong J, Butt ZA, Bartlett S, Jeong D, Pearce M, Darvishian M, Yu A, Alvarez M, Velásquez García HA, Krajden M, Janjua NZ. HCV reinfection rates after cure or spontaneous clearance among HIV-infected and uninfected men who have sex with men. Liver Int. 2021 Mar; 41(3): 482-493. DOI: 10.1111/liv.14762

View at:

Publisher Site: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/liv.14762

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33305525/

Carrat F, Fontaine H, Dorival C, Simony M, Diallo A, Hezode Ch. et al. Clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis C following direct-acting antiviral therapy: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2019; 393(10179): 1453-64. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32111-1

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(18)32111-1/fulltext

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30765123/

CDC. Viral hepatitis surveillance – United States, 2017. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2019.

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/statistics/2017surveillance/index.htm

Center for Disease Control and Prevention Recommendations for hepatitis C screening among adults-2019; Request for comment.

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2019/10/28/2019-23521/recommen...

Chayama K, Suzuki F, Karino Y, Kawakami Y, Sato K, Atarashi T, Naganuma A, Watanabe T, Eguchi Y, Yoshiji H, Seike M, Takei Y, Kato K, Alves K, Burroughs M, Redman R, Pugatch DL, Pilot-Matias TJ, Krishnan P, Oberoi RK, Xie W, Kumada H. Efficacy and safety of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir in Japanese patients with chronic genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infection with and without cirrhosis. J Gastroenterol. 2018; 53(4): 557-565. DOI: 10.1007/s00535-017-1391-5.

View at:

Publisher Site: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00535-017-1391-5

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28948366/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5866824/

Conti F, Buonfiglioli F, Scuteri A, Crespi C, Bolondi L, Caraceni P, Foschi FG, Lenzi M, Mazzella G, Verucchi G, Andreone P, Brillanti S. Early occurrence and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in HCV-related cirrhosis treated with direct-acting antivirals. J Hepatol. 2016 Oct; 65(4): 727-733. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhep.2016.06.015.

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.journal-of-hepatology.eu/article/S0168-8278(16)30303-8/fulltext

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27349488/

Cooke GS, Andrieux-Meyer I, Applegate TL, et al.: Accelerating the elimination of viral hepatitis: a Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology Commission. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019; 4(2): 135-84. DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(18)30270-X

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/langas/article/PIIS2468-1253(18)30270-X/fulltext

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30647010/

Dalgard O, Weiland O, Noraberg G, Karlsen L, Heggelund L, Färkkilâ M, et al. Sofosbuvir based treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 3 infections – A Scandinavian real-life study. 2017. PLoS ONE 12(7): e0179764. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179764

View at:

Publisher Site: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0179764

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28704381/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5509146/

Denise P C Chan, Hsin-Yun Sun, Horas T H Wong, Shui-Shan Lee, Chien-Ching Hung. Sexually acquired hepatitis C virus infection: a review. Int J Infect Dis. 2016 Aug; 49: 47-58. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2016.05.030

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(16)31073-6/fulltext

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27270138/

European Association for the Study of the Liver. European Association for the Study of the Liver: EASL Recommendations on Treatment of Hepatitis C 2018. J Hepatol. 2018; 69(2): 461-511. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhep.2018.03.026

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.journal-of-hepatology.eu/article/S0168-8278(18)31968-8/fulltext

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29650333/

Frisk P, Aggefors K, Cars T. et al. Introduction of the second-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in chronic hepatitis C: a register-based study in Sweden. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2018; 74(7): 971-978. DOI: 10.1007/s00228-018-2456-y

View at:

Publisher Site: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00228-018-2456-y

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29632961/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5999144/

Geddawy A, Ibrahim YF, Elbahie NM, Ibrahim MA. Direct Acting Anti-hepatitis C Virus Drugs: Clinical Pharmacology and Future Direction. J Transl Int Med. 2017; 5(1): 8-17. DOI: 10.1515/jtim-2017-0007

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.sciendo.com/article/10.1515/jtim-2017-0007

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28680834/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5490957/

Grassi G, Di Caprio G, Fimia GM, Ippolito G, Tripodi M, Alonzi T. Hepatitis C virus relies on lipoproteins for its life cycle. World J Gastroenterol. 2016; 22(6): 1953-1965. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i6.1953

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/full/v22/i6/1953.htm

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26877603/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4726671/

Guidelies for the care and treatment of persons with chronic Hepatitis C virus infection. July 2018. World Health Organization 2018.

View at:

Publisher Site: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/273174/9789241550345-eng.pdf?ua=1

He L, Tzarum N, Lin X, Shapero B, Sou C, Mann CJ, Stano A, Zhang L, Nagy K, Giang E, Law M, Wilson IA, Zhu J. Proof of concept for rational design of hepatitis C virus E2 core nanoparticle vaccines. Sci Adv. 2020 Apr 15; 6(16): eaaz6225. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz6225

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.aaz6225

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32494617/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159917/

He L, Zhu J. Computational tools for epitope vaccine design and evaluation. Curr Opin Virol. 2015; 11:103-112. DOI: 10.1016/j.coviro.2015.03.013

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1879625715000449?via%3Dihub

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25837467/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4456225/

Ioannou GN, Green PK, Berry K. HCV eradication induced by direct-acting antiviral agents reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2017; S0168-8278(17)32273-0. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhep.2017.08.030

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.journal-of-hepatology.eu/article/S0168-8278(17)32273-0/fulltext

Scopus: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168827817322730

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28887168/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5837901/

Jones CR, Flower BF, Barber E, Simmons B, Cooke GS. Treatment optimisation for hepatitis C in the era of combination direct-acting antiviral therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis [version 1; peer review: 2 approved]. Wellcome Open Res. 2019; 4:132. DOI: 10.12688/wellcomeopenres.15411.1

View at:

Publisher Site: https://wellcomeopenresearch.org/articles/4-132/v1

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31754636/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6854875/

Kempf MC, Ott C, Wise JM, Footman AP, Araya BY, Hardy CM, Walker C, Latham C, Stockett R, Daniels G, Alexander M, Lanzi RG. Universal screening for HIV and hepatitis C infection: a community-based pilot project. Am J Prev Med. 2018;55(5 Suppl 1):S112- S121. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2018.05.015

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797(18)31901-9/fulltext

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30670196/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6548448/

Lee YA, Wallace MC, Friedman SL. Pathobiology of liver fibrosis: a translational success story. Gut. 2015; 64:830-841. DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2014-306842

View at:

Publisher Site: https://gut.bmj.com/content/64/5/830

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25681399/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4477794/

Marshall AD, Pawlotsky J-M, Lazarus JV, Aghemo A, Dore GJ, Grebely J. The removal of DAA restrictions in Europe – One step closer to eliminating HCV as a major public health threat. J Hepatol. 2018; 69(5):1188-1196. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhep.2018.06.016

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.journal-of-hepatology.eu/article/S0168-8278(18)32169-X/fulltext

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29959953/

Martinello M, Grebely J, Petoumenos K, Gane E, Hellard M, Shaw D, Sasadeusz J, Applegate TL, Dore GJ, Matthews GV. HCV reinfection incidence among individuals treated for recent infection. J Viral Hepat. 2017 May; 24(5): 359-370. DOI: 10.1111/jvh.12666

View at:

Publisher Site: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jvh.12666

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28027424/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5400730/

Morozov VA, Lagaye S. Hepatitis C virus: Morphogenesis, infection and therapy. World J Hepatol. 2018; 10(2): 186-212. DOI: 10.4254/wjh.v10.i2.186

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.wjgnet.com/1948-5182/full/v10/i2/186.htm

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29527256/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5838439/

Njuguna HN, Stinson D, Montgomery P, Turner N, D’Angeli M, Carr J, Podczervinski S, Wasserman C, Ramachandran S, Lucas T, Bixler D, Perkins K, Benowitz I, Moorman A. Hepatitis C virus potentially transmitted by opioid drug diversion from a nurse – Washington, August 2017 – March 2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019; 68(16): 374-376.

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6816a3.htm

Ovrehus ALH, Krarup H, Birkemose I, Holm DK, Mössner B, Ernst A, Christensen PB. Four weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and ribavirin with or without pegylated interferon for chronic hepatitis C in non-cirrhotic people who inject drugs. A randomized trial. J Hepatol. 2018; 68(4): 840-842. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhep.2017.11.031.

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.journal-of-hepatology.eu/article/S0168-8278(17)32475-3/fulltext

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29223370/

Parlati L, Sirmai L, Dupuy CA, Glotz D, Pol S. Evidence of HCV recovery after therapy of hepatitis C virus infection by direct acting antivirals. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2019; 43(2):e18-e19. DOI: 10.1016/j.clinre.2018.09.002

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2210740118301839?via%3Dihub

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30293896/

Petruzziello A, Marigliano S, Loquercio G, Cozzolino A, Cacciapuoti C. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection: an up-date of the distribution and circulation of hepatitis C virus genotypes. World J Gastroenterol. 2016; 22(34): 7824-7840. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i34.7824

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/full/v22/i34/7824.htm

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27678366/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5016383/

Pierce BG, Boucher EN, Piepenbrink KH, Ejemel M, Rapp CA, Thomas WD Jr, Sundberg EJ, Weng Z, Wang Y. Structure-Based Design of Hepatitis C Virus Vaccines That Elicit Neutralizing Antibody Responses to a Conserved Epitope. J Virol. 2017 Sep; 91(20):e01032-17. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01032-17.

View at:

Publisher Site: https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/JVI.01032-17

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28794021/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5625506/

Pol S, Lagaye S. The remarkable history of the hepatitis C virus. Genes Immun. 2019; 20(5): 436-446. DOI: 10.1038/s41435-019-0066-z

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41435-019-0066-z

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31019253/

Rabaan AA, Al-Ahmed SH, Bazzi AM, Alfouzan WA, Alsuliman SA, Aldrazi FA, Haque S. Overview of hepatitis C infection, molecular biology, and new treatment. Journal of Infection and Public Health. 2020; 13(5): 773-783. DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2019.11.015

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876034119303569?via%3Dihub

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31870632/

Sandmann L, Schulte B, Manns M, P, Maasoumy B: Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C: Efficacy, Side Effects and Complications. Visc Med. 2019;35(3):161-170. DOI: 10.1159/000500963

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/500963

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31367613/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6616049/

Schillie S, Wester C, Osborne M, Wesolowski L, Ryerson AB. CDC Recommendations for Hepatitis C Screening Among Adults – United States, 2020. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2020 Apr 10;69(2):1-17. DOI: 10.15585/mmwr.rr6902a1.

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/rr/rr6902a1.htm?s_cid=rr6902a1_w

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32271723/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7147910/

Scott N, Ólafsson S, Gottfreðsson M, Tyrfingsson T, Rúnarsdóttir V, Hansdottir I, Hernandez UB, Sigmundsdóttir G, Hellard M. Modelling the elimination of hepatitis C as a public health threat in Iceland: A goal attainable by 2020. J Hepatol. 2018; 68(5): 932-939. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhep.2017.12.013.

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.journal-of-hepatology.eu/article/S0168-8278(17)32528-X/fulltext

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29274408/

Sharifnia Z, Bandehpour M, Kazemi B, Zarghami N. Design and Development of Modified mRNA Encoding Core Antigen of Hepatitis C Virus: a Possible Application in Vaccine Production. Iran Biomed J. 2019; 23(1): 57-67. DOI: 10.29252/.23.1.57.

View at:

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30056690/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305823/

Shoukry NH. Hepatitis C Vaccines, Antibodies, and T Cells. Front. Immunol. 2018; 9:1480. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01480

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01480/full

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30002657/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6031729/

Tzarum N, Wilson IA, Law M. The Neutralizing Face of Hepatitis C Virus E2 Envelope Glycoprotein. Front. Immunol. 2018. 9:1315. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01315

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01315/full

PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29951061/

PubMed Central: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6008530/

World Health Organization. [Hepatitis C fact sheet]. [in Russian]

View at:

Publisher Site: https://www.who.int/ru/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-c

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.