Relevance. In HIV-infected patients, renal disease, which is characterized by severe clinical manifestations, can significantly affect the prognosis of life. Given the growing number of HIV-infected people in the world and the increase in the life expectancy of such patients, an increase in the number of HIV-infected people in need of expensive renal replacement therapy, as well as kidney transplantation, should be expected. But the question of the nature of kidney damage in HIV infection in Ukraine is still insufficiently covered.
The objective of the work is to establish the clinical and laboratory features of kidney damage in HIV infection.
Materials and methods. 292 patients with HIV were examined. Screening for markers of kidney damage (albuminuria/proteinuria) was performed by test systems (using urine strips). The results obtained with the help of test strips were considered as indicative. In the presence of ≥1+ proteinuria in the screening test, which corresponded to a gradation of 30 mg/l, repeated urine analyzes were performed with quantitative determination of protein on a spectrophotometer, separated in time from 3 days to one week. The functional state of the kidneys was assessed by an integrated indicator that characterizes the degree of preservation/loss of mass of active nephrons. The criterion for renal impairment was a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min by 1.73 m2. Chronic kidney disease was diagnosed when proteinuria or proteinuria was detected in combination with a decrease in GFR for 3 months or more.
Results. Based on the main markers of renal damage (persistent proteinuria (PU) and glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73m2), 48 people were diagnosed with chronic kidney disease, which was often accompanied by dysfunction of these organs. Based on the analysis of complaints, anamnestic data, and clinical symptoms of kidney damage, patients were divided into 2 groups. The first group (n = 31, or 64.6%) - patients with tubulointerstitial, the second group (n = 17, or 35.4%) - patients with glomerular diseases. Increased PU levels are accompanied by significantly significant renal impairment and a more frequent combination with hypertension and hematuria in the absence of significant differences in the frequency of opportunistic diseases.
Conclusions. In HIV-infected kidney damage is most often characterized by their tubulointerstitial lesions. At the same time, glomerular kidney damage, which is much less common, is accompanied by significantly higher levels of HIV RNA.
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