Relevance. The relationship between endocrinopathies and the condition of the oral cavity is associated with disorders of metabolism, hemodynamics, immunological and neuroregulatory changes. Since the first line of contact with the environment of the oral cavity is the mucous membrane, changes in its properties adversely affect the functional state of other periodontal tissues.
Objective: to examine the structural changes of the oral mucosa in rats with combined endocrinopathy.
Materials and methods. The studies were carried on 120 rats, which were divided into three experimental (animals with iodine deficiency – ID, insulin resistance – IR, IR on the background of ID) and a control group of animals. Histological examination of the oral mucosa, computer morphometry, and densitometry of objects was performed.
Results. In rats with ID, the epithelium of the mucous membrane was characterized by the development of acanthosis, expansion of the granular layer, enhanced keratin formation. The development of IR caused hyperplastic changes in the epithelium with the formation of unexpressed cords of acanthosis, epithelial basal hypercellular infiltration, which was confirmed by morphometric data. Under conditions of combined endocrinopathy, more pronounced changes in the histological structure of oral mucosa were observed. In particular, the development of mucosal edema in connective tissue, with predominantly macrophage hypercellularity at the periphery, was noted. Densitometric examination of the samples indicated a decrease in the optical density of connective tissue. At the same time, hyperplastic changes in most layers of the epithelium and pronounced changes in the vascular wall were observed.
Conclusions. Combined endocrinopathy leads to pronounced changes of the oral mucosa, which can lead to disruption of the structure of periodontal tissues and the entire tooth-alveolar complex.
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