Relevance. Till now there is no clear clinical trial understanding of the relationship between hypertension (AH) and the patient's cognitive function.
Objective: the investigation of changes in cognitive function in patients with hypertension with concomitant type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2).
Materials and methods. 215 people were examined: Group I (n = 131) – stage II hypertensive disease (HD); Group II (n = 46) – HD, combined with diabetes mellitus2; Group III, control (n = 38) – without a diagnosis of HD and diabetes mellitus2. All examined blood pressure (BP), echocardiogram. Clinical complaints, anamnestic data, and neuropsychiatric testing data were used to diagnose moderate cognitive impairment (MCI). Used modified diagnostic criteria J. Touchon, R. Petersen. To assess cognitive function used: Short scale of assessment of mental state (Mini-Mental State Examination - MMSE); Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB); clock drawing test; test for literal and categorical associations; Schulte tables; the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR).
Result. In patients with HD, the most significant risk factors for moderate cognitive impairment are hypercholesterolemia and overweight (with OR 1.8), obesity (OR 1.6), the presence of concomitant diabetes mellitus2, which, especially in overweight, significantly impairs cognitive function ( OR 2.56). Deterioration of cognitive function correlates with the duration of HD, cholesterol levels. Concomitant diabetes mellitus2 in patients with HD creates a statistically significant additional negative effect on the results of cognitive function. In patients with HD with a distorted daily blood pressure profile, the neurodynamic component of cognitive function is first of all affected - conceptualization, repetition, the reaction of choice. The relationship between cognitive function and daily monitoring of blood pressure often have a U-shaped relationship, where the maximum indicators of cognitive function are at the level of the optimal recommended blood pressure figures (130-139 mm Hg for SBP, and 75-85 mm Hg for DBP, and the daily index within 10%).
Conclusions. There is a dependence on changes in cognitive function on the presence of risk factors and signs of subclinical damage to target organs. The nonlinear U-shaped character of the relationship between the average daily, average night, and average daily blood pressure and the results of screening tests and scales for assessing cognitive function are shown.
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