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drugs, narrow therapeutic index

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Khaitovych, M. (2019). RISK MANAGEMENT OF USE DRUGS WITH NARROW THERAPEUTIC INDEX IN CLINICAL PRACTICE. Review. Medical Science of Ukraine (MSU), 15(3-4), 105-111. https://doi.org/10.32345/2664-4738.3-4.2019.16


Relevance. Today, the pharmacotherapy of many diseases is significantly expanded. However, the amount of pathological conditions associated with the use of drugs has increased. Drug related problems in some cases can be fatal and increase health care costs. It is necessary to be able to anticipate in advance the possibility of developing such conditions, to prevent them. Therefore, the analysis of the causes and mechanisms of development of these conditions is relevant.

Objective. To find out the most common causes of drug related problems and consider the mechanisms of such states.

Methods. Analysis of scientific publications in PubMed by keywords for the period 2001-2018.

Results. The therapeutic index is the ratio of the dose that causes toxic effects in 50% of patients to the dose that causes the expected therapeutic effect in 50% of patients. The therapeutic index ≤ 3 is an indicator that defines drugs with narrow (small) therapeutic index. These drugs include insulin, digoxin, warfarin, levothyroxine, aminoglycoside antibiotics, carbamazepine, lithium, phenytoin, etc.

The risks associated with these drugs are: the use of generic drugs with insufficient bioequivalence, pharmacokinetic interaction and polymorphism of genes of drug metabolism. The main mechanisms of their pharmacokinetic interaction at the stages of absorption (alteration of digestive tract motility, influence on the activity of P-glycoprotein), distribution (competition for blood plasma proteins and tissue proteins), and biotransformation (inhibition or induction of metabolism). The role of polymorphism of genes encoding the activity of isoenzymes cytochrome P450 2C9 and 1A2 and glycoprotein P in the development of adverse drug reactions of drugs with a narrow therapeutic index is presented.

Conclusion. Risk management of using drugs with a narrow therapeutic index should include therapeutic drug monitoring of especially generic drugs, assessment of the risks of pharmacokinetic interaction, widespread introduction pharmacogenetic tests for determine the polymorphism of the genes of metabolism enzymes and drug transporters in the clinical practice.

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