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proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, digestive system, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome

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Diabetes mellitus is a widespread disease in the world. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is more and more common in younger people and has many complications. In particular, diabetes causes complications in the gastrointestinal tract. A metabolic syndrome is a state in which metabolic disorders occur. A certain role in the development of metabolic syndrome belongs to the gastrointestinal tract. On the other hand, the presence of metabolic syndrome is a significant risk factor for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The development of complications of diabetes and metabolic syndrome is known to be associated with disorders of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy.

Immunohistochemical methods are widely used in scientific research to evaluate the state of cell proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy in the tissues of the digestive system, in particular in the liver, stomach, pancreas, small intestine and colon. Immunohistological methods provide valuable data on the nature of changes in the processes of cell proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy in the tissues of the digestive system under conditions of metabolic disorders, in particular in diabetes and in metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the use of immunohistochemical methods to determine the proliferative activity by the expression of nuclear antigen Ki-67 and by the expression of nuclear antigen of proliferating cells PCNA , assessment of the state of apoptosis processes by expression of protein Bcl-2 and protein BAX, as well as to determine the nature of the processes of autopsy by expression of Beclin-1 (BECN1) in the tissues of the digestive system in experimental metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus type 2 is quite reasonable.
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